Karume was born in May 24, 1950. He is the Tanzanian Ambassador to Italy and Dean of Tanzania Ambassadors and is a top-ranking Tanzanian diplomat. He is the son of Zanzibar's first president.
2006 - to date Ambassador to Italy - Greece - Turkey - Slovenia - Croatia Cyprus and Dean of Tanzania Ambassadors
2002 - 2006 Ambassador to Germany, Switzerland and Poland with concurrent accreditation to the Holy See- Vatican, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria - Berlin, Germany
1996 - 2002 Ambassador to Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg (Benelux) and The European Union (E.U) - Brussels, Belgium
1993 - 1996 Ambassador and Director for Europe and Americas Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation - Dar es Salaam
Tanzania Delegate to the World Bank, IMF and USAID - Washington, D.C, U.S.A
Chief Delegate to the ACP - Brussels, Belgium
Chief Delegate to the OPCW - The Hague, Netherlands
Chairman ACP Sub-Committee on Finance and Administration - Brussels, Belgium
Chairman ACP Sub-Committee on Agriculture and Commodities - Brussels, Belgium
Chairman Committee of OAU Ambassadors - Brussels, Belgium, 1996–1997
Chairman of SADC Ambassadors - Berlin, Germany, 2003–2004
Chairman ICAC - International Cotton Advisory Committee - Washington DC
Chairman IIC - International Institute for Cotton - Brussels, Belgium
Member of CCM since its inception in 1977
Member of ASP since 1970
1989 - 1993 Deputy Ambassador to the United States of America (U.S.A) Embassy of Tanzania - Washington, D.C, U.S.A
1985 - 1989 Minister Plenipotentiary, Embassy of Tanzania - Brussels, Belgium
1972 - 1978 Deputy Minister, Ministry of Trade and Industry - Zanzibar
Karume was schooled at Tumekuja Secondary School and later at the Lumumba College in Zanzibar until 1969. He started his career as Special Assistant to the General Manager of ZSTC Zanzibar (1969–1970). He was later promoted to Managing Director of ZSTC where he held the position for two years from 1970–1972. From 1972–1978, Karume held the position of Deputy Minister, Ministry of Trade and Industry in the Zanzibar Government. In 1978, Karume took a leave of absence for advanced studies in the U.S.A
A year after graduation, Karume joined the Tanzania Foreign Service and began eight years of service as Minister Plenipotentiary in Brussels, Belgium from 1985–1989 and as Deputy Ambassador to the United States of America (U.S.A) in Washington DC, U.S.A from 1989-1993.
After a three year period (1993–1996) as Ambassador and Director for Europe and Americas Department at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Karume was appointed by President Benjamin William Mkapa as Ambassador to Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg (Benelux) and The European Union (E.U) where he served from 1996–2002. From 2002–2006, Karume served as Ambassador to Germany, Switzerland and Poland with concurrent accreditation to the Holy See- Vatican, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria.
In July 2006, Ambassador Karume was appointed by President Kikwete as Ambassador to Italy, Turkey, Greece, Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta.
On 27 January 2010, Karume announced his intention to vie for the Presidency of Zanzibar in the 2010 general elections.